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   2014| January-June  | Volume 8 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 9, 2014

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Comparative evaluation of gingival depigmentation using a surgical blade and a diode laser
Kalakonda Butchibabu, Pradeep Koppolu, Murali Krishna Tupili, Wizarath Hussain, Vijaya Lakshmi Bolla, Krishnanjaneya Reddy Patakota
January-June 2014, 8(1):20-25
Aim: A comparative evaluation of the gingival depigmentation by using a surgical blade and a diode laser; 6 months follow-up. Materials and Methods: Four systemically healthy patients who were aged 21-28 years were selected for the study and were treated with different gingival depigmentation techniques. Diode laser and surgical blade was used for the depigmentation in either of the arches. Pain levels were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) during the surgery, 1 day, 3 days and 1 week postoperatively. The recurrence of pigmentation was assessed with melanin pigmentation index (MPI). Results: The gingiva appeared pink and healthy after both the procedures and there was no recurrence of pigmentation. The clinical results obtained with the diode laser were esthetically pleasing with great patient comfort and satisfaction compared to the surgical blade. There was a statistically significant difference between the levels of pain during the procedure and 3 rd postoperative day between the two groups. Conversely there was no difference in the levels of pain 24 hours postoperatively and 1 week postoperatively among the two groups. Conclusion: The laser approach resulted in not as much of bleeding and pain as with scalpel technique. Although no difference in effectiveness and esthetic outcome were found between the two approaches, further well-conducted randomized trials would assist to make the absolute conclusion.
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Effectiveness of Er: YAG (PIPS) and Nd: YAG activation on final irrigants for smear layer removal - SEM observation
Sucheta Sathe, Vivek Hegde, Paresh Arvind Jain, Dhananjay Ghunawat
January-June 2014, 8(1):8-13
Aim and Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of laser on final irrigants and observe smear layer removal from coronal, middle, and apical third region of root canal. Materials and Methods: Thirty single-rooted premolars were selected for the study. Access opening was done followed by which cleaning and shaping was completed till F3 using rotary protaper (Dentsply). The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10), Group I - Hand activation using 15 no. K file, Group II - neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG)-activated, and Group III - erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er: YAG)-activated; which were further divided into two subgroups (n = 5) depending upon the final rinse used, subgroup A - 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and subgroup B - 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The samples were then sectioned and taken for scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. Results: Within the limitations of the study, photon-induced photoacoustic streaming, that is, Er: YAG PIPS showed maximum smear layer removal in coronal, middle and apical third region on 17% EDTA activation.
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Excision of fibroma with diode laser: A case series
Jagadish B. S. Pai, R Padma, Divya , Sachin Malagi, Vinesh Kamath, Annaji Shridhar, Alex Mathews
January-June 2014, 8(1):34-38
Traumatic or irritation fibroma is a common benign exophytic oral lesion that develops secondary to tissue injury. It is the most common benign reactive lesion, and the treatment of choice is surgical excision. The use of lasers in different dental procedures has become very common. The diode laser which was introduced in dentistry since 1999. It is a solid-state semiconductor laser that typically uses a combination of gallium (Ga), arsenide (Ar), and other elements such as aluminium (Al) and indium (In). It has a wavelength ranging from 810 to 980 nm. This energy is absorbed by pigments in the soft tissues and makes the diode laser an excellent hemostatic agent and helps in ablation of soft tissue. Lasers have obvious benefits for all the patients without administering anesthetic shots and that means less time spent in the dental chair. Procedures were performed more conservatively, with less trauma for patients. Laser applications also enable the patient to enjoy a more relaxed dental experience, reducing or diminishing their fears, and resulting excellent post-operation experience for patients. This case series describes the use of diode laser on the excision of fibromas. The excision of fibroma using the diode laser was a quick clinical procedure without bleeding. During the days following surgery, the patient reported no pain or discomfort. The wound healing of the soft tissue was satisfactory and no scarring could be seen in the region of the surgery. The excision of the fibroma with the diode laser is a safe, quick procedure, with minimum postoperative discomfort and complications.
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Effect of diode laser on periodontally involved root surfaces: An in vitro environmental scanning electron microscope study
Lohar Nilam Baburao, Byakod Girish Neelkanth, Hegde Rashmi Vivek, Muglikar Sangeeta Dilip
January-June 2014, 8(1):2-7
Context: Diode laser has been used as adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of periodontitis. However, inadvertent effect of diode laser on root surface needs more evaluation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the structural and compositional changes in extracted human permanent teeth following scaling, root planing, and diode laser (980 nm) application in noncontact mode. Settings and Design: This was an in vitro environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) study. Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted periodontally involved teeth indicated for extraction were selected and divided into two groups. In Group 1, 15 teeth were treated with scaling and root planing followed by diode laser application in noncontact mode (2 W, 30 s) and in Group 2, 15 teeth were treated with scaling and root planing alone. An ESEM was used to examine the cemental surface. Compositional changes were assessed using EDAX software. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical comparison of compositional changes and root surface alterations in two groups was carried out using independent sample t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: About 53.3% of teeth in Group 1 showed mild surface changes (Score 4) as compared to only 13.3% of teeth in Group 2. The results were statistically significant ( P - 0.001). This study also reveals a significant amount of compositional changes in Group 1 as compared with Group 2. Mass % of carbon and oxygen is significantly increased in Group 1 as compared with Group 2. Conclusions: In this study, mild root surface alterations were seen in the form of cracks and charring after diode laser application in noncontact mode.
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Intraoral lipoma: Report of two cases with diode laser excision
Jamileh Bigom Taheri, Zahra Mansouri, Somayyeh Babaee, Somayyeh Azimi
January-June 2014, 8(1):26-28
Lipoma, a benign tumor of adipose tissue is one of the most common benign neoplasms of the body. However, its occurrence in oral cavity is very rare. It accounts for 1-4% of benign neoplasms of mouth affecting predominantly the buccal mucosa, floor of mouth and tongue. We report two cases of intraoral lipoma both of them in buccal vestibule. An excisional biopsy with diode laser was performed and histopathology examination revealed proliferation of mature adipocytes arranged in lobules and separated by fibrous septa in the first case, and the second case was a fibrolipoma.
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Gingival cosmetic resculpturing for a complete smile designing using diode laser
Vinisha Pandey, Vipin Kumar
January-June 2014, 8(1):29-33
If the teeth can be described as the canvas of a painting, then the gum tissue is the frame around the canvas. In other words, disproportionate gum tissue can make or break the smile. 'What nature gives and man forms can achieve essential harmony and benefits in right hands, like lasers in dentistry. Gum sculpturing is usually done in conjunction with veneers, as the gum is likely to just grow back down without them. The aim of this case presentation is to demonstrate an alternative method to treat one of the causes of gummy smile, by using LASER which provides us "Dentists" with so many benefits.
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Editors Message
Vivek Hegde
January-June 2014, 8(1):1-1
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The effect of cavity preparation with erbium-doped: Yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser on marginal integrity of resin composite restoration-scanning electron microscope study
Shamshe-Alam Idrisi, Sucheta Sathe, Vivek Hegde
January-June 2014, 8(1):14-19
Aim: To evaluate the effect of cavity preparation with erbium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser on marginal integrity on resin composite restoration. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human extracted teeth were divided into four groups, and class-V cavity of approximately 1.5 mm depth and 2 mm width were prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth. A total of 10 samples were kept as control group where cavities were prepared with carbide bur. Rest of 30 samples were divided into three groups with 10 samples each and cavity was prepared with Er:YAG laser keeping pulse energy constant at 200 mJ and pulse duration constant at super short pulse and frequencies used for three groups were 10, 15, and 20 Hz, respectively. For control group, restorations were done using etching and bonding method, and for the three laser groups, bonding agent was applied directly and composite resin was placed. After restoration, enamel cracks and gap formations at the cavosurface margins were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the surface and crosscut surface of the restoration. Results: Using SEM on the surface and crosscut surface of the restoration the preparation by Er:YAG laser at frequency 10 Hz showed better marginal integrity of resin composite restoration. Conclusion: Laser group showed better cavity preparation than that with rotary carbide bur.
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